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Warburton; with the assistance of Marianne Eaton-Krauss. This matches statements made by the ancient authors. Most authors also call the preceding Badari cul- ture "Predynastic", although it has also been considered "Neolithic", together with the 5th millennium finds from the Fayum, Merimde Beni Salama and el-Omari in LE. There is no obvious change in the material culture marking the tran- sition between Predynastic and Early Dynastic in UE. PREDYNASTIG EARLY DYNASTIC CHRONOLOGY 59 40 poorly documented settlement sites. van den Brink, "Inventory of Predynastic and Early Dynastic Cemetery and Settiement Sites in the Egyptian Nile Valley", in: Interrelations, 346—399. In a further stage, the data from cemeteries without published maps were integrated and the possibilities of regional variability investigated. La necropole predynastique (Le Caire, 2002), 415-417. 76 Only the main developments and most characteristic types of objects are mentioned (cf. The differences are mainly to be found in the material culture, for which the pottery presents the most obvious evidence. For a more detailed overview of the relative chronological periods represented at individual Naqada sites, see Hendrickx & van den Brink, in: Interrelations, 346—399. When studying the spatial distribution of the Naqada III cemetery of Elkab two groups could be distinguished within material characteristic for Kaiser's Stufe IIIa2. The following correlation with the early kings of Egypt can be made: Stufe IIIb2 = Iry-Hor and earlier; Stufe IIIcl = Ka — Narmer; Stufe IIIc2 = Hor Aha — Djer; Stufe IIIc3 = Djet/Den until the end of Dyn. There are however a number of important changes in the types of vessels. 1, reign of Den, with added inscriptions of c Adj-ib and Semer-khet DYNASTIES O— 2 1 1 1 Paris, Louvre E. If an irregular dating system pertained during Dyns. The form of the throne-name implies that he too belongs near the start of Dyn. It is certain that lunar Day 1 was always close to conjunction, but it can no longer be known for most lunar months exactly how close, hence the description "about 1 1 Apr 423 BC," and not just "11 Apr 423 BC" for lunar dates throughout this Chapter and Chapter II. Once the course of the Babylonian calendar is reconstructed, the earliest and latest attested dates for each reign provide approximate dates for the reigns' beginnings (see sections 1 and 4 in Chapter II. Double dates date single documents by both the Egyptian civil calendar and the Babylonian lunisolar calendar. Johnson, The Gentile Times Reconsidered: Chronology and Christ's Return, Third Edition (Atlanta, 1998). 468 LEO DEPUYDT a paramount contribution of these double dates to Egyptian chronol- ogy, 13 in addition to sundry detail regarding the dating of individual kings.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Ancient Egyptian chronology / edited by Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss, and David A. ): "The fullness of time (neheh) without limits is given to me, for I am the heir of Neheh to whom djet is given". 223-224 (i), also the occasional designation of the Necropolis. That is a great deal when compared with the figures in the Christian and Jewish traditions. Malinine, "Nouveaux fragments du calendrier egyptien des jours fastes et nefastes", in: Melanges Maspero I, 2-3, Orient ancien (Cairo: MIFAO 66, 1935-1938), 887-888, 898. Although it evidently refers to all periods previous to the dynastic history of Egypt, its use is in reality reserved for the Naqada culture of (Upper) Egypt which dates to the 4th millennium BC and economically represents a late Neolithic culture with increasing social complexity which is at the origin of the pharaonic civilisation. van den Brink, "Interaction Models, Egypt and the Levantine Periphery", in: Interrelations, 3-38. 10 More exceptionally it has been termed "Early Bronze", 11 mainly for comparison with the Levant. For this reason, and since related groups of archaeological objects can be distinguished at several sites, until proven otherwise, we may as well accept the simultaneity of archaeo- logical groups with a strong resemblance, suggesting that the same chronological periods may well have existed for the different cemeteries. 75 Description of Naqada Periods — Naqada I The descriptions presented here are mainly based on the distribution studies made for a number of cemeteries for which both a map and tomb inventory are available. The burials are however of the same type and organised in the same manner. Friedman, Predynastic Settlement Ceramics of Upper Egypt: A Comparative Study of the Ceramics of Hemamieh, Nagada and Hierakonpolis (U. The description of Stufe IIIa2 is therefore largely theoretical. In terms of percentages, the distribution of the pottery classes remains almost identical to Naqada IIIA2. These short texts associated with the construction pro- jects of the state are the most frequently preserved dated documents from Dyn. Why should these inscriptions regularly omit every second year from the administrative record? Verner, "Who was Shepseskare, and when did he reign? 35 This is evidently a king of the entire country and not a minor UE king or a local ruler. 14 It is important to note that a Julian day date of an ancient lunar Day 1 may be off by one to two days from the actual historical beginning. Aramaic Double Dates Aramaic papyri from Egypt dating to the fifth century BC have yielded a remarkable set of Egyptian-Babylonian double dates.

Greek historians, such as Hekataios of Abdera already reached the gods in the 16th generation. AD) cites a figure of 1 1 ,985 years for the reigns of the gods (and thus close to that of Herodotus), with Hephaistos = Ptah assigned 9000 years. 3 By doing so he stressed the material differences, especially those between the Amratian and Gerzean which according to Petrie were caused by the arrival of a "new race". From the First Egyptians to the First Pharaohs (London 2000). Schmidt, "Neue Fundstellen der Buto-Maadi- Kultur bei Esbet el-Qerdahi", MDAIK 4:5 (1989), 309-318; Fairings, in: Stationen, 35-45. Hendrickx, "La chronologie de la prehistoire tardive et des debuts de l'histoire de l'Egypte", Archeo-Nil 9 (1999), 13-81; T. The latter how- ever are very exceptional outside of elite sites such as Abydos and Saqqara. 28 Besides Mahgar Dendera most of these finds are unfortu- nately limited in extent. 29 For a more detailed overview of Badarian sites, see S. The general observations made by Kaiser for cemetery 1400-1500 at Armant are not fundamentally contradicted, 72 E. All of the Naqada I period is dominated by Black-Topped pottery, which makes up over 50% of the assemblage. Because of this and the above mentioned problems with the Stufen IId2 Illal, the earliest group distinguished within Kaiser's Stufe IIIa2 was read- justed to Naqada IIIA1. 98 Naqada IIIA2 tombs have been published both according to Petrie's predynastic and protodynastic typology (Petrie (n. It is however to be noted that the amount of Decorated vessels would be much higher if the Wavy-Handled jars of type W 62 with net pattern decoration would be included. van den Brink, "The Incised Serekh-signs of Dynasties 0—1, Part I: Complete Vessels", in: Spencer (n. The smaller types (L 36 b, L 38 a) occur more frequendy than the large ones (L 36 a, L 36 k). 104 p or j n j s jyp e f j ar S) see van den Brink "The Incised Serekh-signs of Dynasties 0—1, Part I: Complete Vessels"; idem, "The Pottery-Incised Serekh-Signs of Dynasties 0-1. Michailidis collection) Comment: The bowl shows three inscised nsw bjt/nsw bjt names: Khasty, Mer-pi-bia and Iry-netjer. 8 (lower right), 14: 1; Spencer, Objects, 42 (271), pis. It is possible, for instance, that during the formative period of the bureau- cracy the frequency of the census was linked to the financing of large projects — buildings, reclamation of land from the marshes, etc. The persistent match also adds confidence to the estab- lished understanding of earlier Egyptian chronology. ILL 16 Columns (1) and (2) list what is in the text. On the one hand, the Julian date of the Egyptian equivalent of lunar Day 1 is known because the course of the Egyptian wandering year is fully transparent ((4)).

Herodotus (2, 142) reports that the Egyptian priests accounted for a human line of ancestors of 341 generations, which he reckoned amounted to 11,340 years before which lay the age of the gods. 2 The terminology for the relative chronology of the Predynastic period is also far from consistent (Table II. Originally Petrie distinguished three chronologically distinct cultures which he called respectively Amratian, Gerzean and Semainean, after type sites that he excavated. Here one should distinguish between cultural chronology based on material evidence and the historical chronology based on written documents. However, characteristic Badarian finds have also been made much further to the south (Mahgar Dendera, 24 Armant, 25 Elkab, 26 and Hierakonpolis) 27 and also in the Wadi Ham- mamat. Hoffman, "A Preliminary Report on 1984 Excavations at Hierakonpolis", NARCE 132 (1986), 3-14. Debono, "Expediton archeologique royale au desert oriental (Keft — Kosseir): Rapport preliminaire sur la campagne 1949", ASAE 51 (1951), 74. This eventually allows for an archaeological description of each of the relative chronological periods. Not only will the char- acteristic rippled surface of the Badarian only occur most exception- ally during Naqada IA, but more importantly, the three principal pottery fabrics of the Badarian differ from those of the Naqada culture.' 7 Naqada I sites occur only in UE, from the Badarian region in the north to a few sites south of Aswan, in Lower Nubia. 9b A similar observation could be made for the Hierakonpolis Fort Cemetery, 97 which was also not yet published at the time when Kaiser made his study of the relative chronology. The most important 84 STAN HENDRIGKX Decorated pottery diminishes in quantity, but for the remaining exam- ples both the vessel types and the decoration are identical to Naqada IIIA1. 58) gives no archaeological description for these new Stiffen, neither does he discuss the way in which they have been distinguished. 1.5 is based on personal information kindly supplied by W. The slender Rough jars with pointed base have almost completely disappeared. For the marl clay storage jars, two size classes can be distinguished. 1, reign of Den, with added inscriptions of c Adj-ib and Semer-khet New York, MMA 58.125.2 Prov.: not known (ex. 1, reign of Den, with added inscriptions of c Adj-ib and Semer-khet London, BM EA 49278 Prov.: Umm el-Qaab, Tomb T Comment: Mer-pi-bia, originally incised near the name Khasty (untouched), was erased and replaced by Iry-netjer, documenting the sequence Khasty, Mer-pi-bia, Iry-netjer. Naville, The Cemeteries at Abydos I (London, 1914), 35, pis. 4 and 5, what economic and/or administrative necessity determined its irregularity? The fact that the two independently obtained Julian equivalents of the Egyptian and Babylonian dates as a rule match serves as an absolute guarantee of the correctness of our understanding, at least from the fifth century BC onward, of both calendars, of our understanding of the dating of Egyptian history, and of our understanding of the Egyptian year's wan- dering motion. For a list of the completely preserved double dates see Table III. The equation (1) = (2) found in the texts is reduced to lunar Day 1 in column (3).

In writing a book of this character it has been necessary to employ a number of technical terms; the reader will find these defined in the glos- sary. Although the fertility test is not neces- sarily a diagnostic, Homo sapiens in the living sense comprises, without ques- tion, a species, even if in the formation of the living human group more than one related species, now extinct in the pure form, was absorbed. Within this larger group there are many variations of superficially great importance.

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Genealogies as long as those given by Herodotus are generally encountered in the LP, the best known being the family tree of Memphite priests of Dyn. 12 In another note, Herodotus (2, 145) dates Hercules 900 years before his own day, and Dionysos "some 1000 years". Burstein, "Images of Egypt in Greek historiography," in: Antonio Loprieno, ed., Ancient Egyptian Literature (Leiden, 1996), 591-604, esp. This Synkellos simply inter- prets as months, which allows "only" 727 3 A years for Ptah. This view has already been abandoned for a long time, but the terms Amratian and Gerzean in particular continue to be used by some scholars up to the present day. 3 Petrie, Diospolis Parva; idem, Prehistoric Egypt (London 1920). 1.1 Petrie 1920: 46 -50 Scharff 1931: 16-30 Kaiser Hendrickx Hassan 1988 Brunton 1937, 1948 Kantor 1944, 1965, 1957, 1990 1996, 1999 Vandier 1953 1993 Baumgartel 1970 Semainean Pro tody naslic Naqada Stufe Illa-c Naqada IIIA-D Terminal Pre dynastic Gerzean Naqada II Naqada Stufe Ila-d Naqada IIC-D Late Predynastic Amratian Naqada I Naqada Stufe la— c Naqada I-IIB Middle Predynastic Badarian Badarian Badarian Badarian Early Predynastic In LE the local 4th millennium culture identified at Maadi and Buto, for example has recently been the focus of research. Alexander, eds., Environmental Change and Human Culture in the Nile Basin and Northern Africa (Poznan 1993), 267-277; J. Because of this, the end of the Naqada III culture is, from the archaeological point of view, to be placed within or at the end of Dyn. The term Naqada culture will therefore also be used for the Early Dynastic period. below) was originally identified by Brunton at Deir Tasa, and accordingly labelled by him as Tasian. Caton Thompson, The Badarian Civilisation and Prehistoric Remains near Badari (London, 1928). 29 Until recently, most authors tended to consider the Badari culture as a chronologically separated unit, out of which the Naqada culture developed. Red-Polished and White Cross-Lined are the second most important categories. The validity of this was later confirmed by the horizontal development of the elite tombs at cemetery U at Abydos and especially the position of tomb U-j and the types of objects found in it (cf below). These are most character- istic for Naqada IIIA2 and are part of the Wavy-Handled jars with their maximum diameter located at the rim, relatively broad base and continuous decorative band (W 55, W 58, W 61, W 62)." The stone vessels consist mainly of calcite bowls and plates. For discussion of a number of problems related to the Horizonte, see E. A rare but notable new type is large jars with applied rope decoration, generally consid- ered to be wine jars (protodynastic 76). Part II: Fragments and Additional Complete Vessels", Archeo-Ml 1 1 (2001), 23-100. 1, reign of Den, with inscriptions added under c Adj- ib — Qa- C a Michailidis collection Prov.: not known 1 10 JOGHEM KAHL Comment: The bowl bears the nsw bjt/nsw bjt names Khasty, Mer- pi-bia, Iry-netjer and Qa- C a. 1, reign of Den, with inscriptions added under c Adj- ib — Qa- C a Swiss private collection Prov.: not known Comment: The bowl shows four incised nsw bjt/nsw bjt names: Khasty, Mer-pi-bia, Iry-netjer and Qa- C a. Bibliography: Kaplony, MDAIK 20 (1965), 13 (22), pis. Were consecutive census years occasioned by funding shortfalls? On the other hand, so is the time of conjunction or new moon through computa- tion using formulas of lunar motion (see (5)). The corresponding chronogram was used to explore their temporal and geographical diversification through distinct likelihood-based methods.The phylogeny for Neotropical Troidini was well resolved and strongly supported.First, DNA-based species delimitation analyses were conducted to assess species boundaries within Neotropical Troidini using an enlarged fragment of the standard barcode gene.

Molecularly delineated species were then used to infer a time-calibrated species-level phylogeny based on a three-gene dataset and Bayesian dating analyses.

Molecular dating and biogeographic analyses indicate that the extant lineages of Neotropical Troidini have a late Eocene (33–42 Ma) origin in North America.

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